Advertisement

Less daytime sleepiness and slow wave activity during sleep predict better physical readiness in military personnel

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: Warfighter Performance Department, Operational Readiness & Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center/Leidos, San Diego, CA, USA
    Alice D. LaGoy
    Footnotes
    1 Current address: Warfighter Performance Department, Operational Readiness & Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center/Leidos, San Diego, CA, USA
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • William R. Conkright
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Felix Proessl
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Aaron M. Sinnott
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Meaghan E. Beckner
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Leslie Jabloner
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Shawn R. Eagle
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Nicole M. Sekel
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: Warfighter Performance Department, Operational Readiness & Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center/Leidos, San Diego, CA, USA
    Peter G. Roma
    Footnotes
    1 Current address: Warfighter Performance Department, Operational Readiness & Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center/Leidos, San Diego, CA, USA
    Affiliations
    Behavioral Health & Performance Laboratory, Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division, Human Health and Performance Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center/KBR, Houston, Texas, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Michael N. Dretsch
    Affiliations
    U.S. Army Medical Research Directorate-West, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Shawn D. Flanagan
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Qi Mi
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Bradley C. Nindl
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Anne Germain
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Christopher Connaboy
    Affiliations
    Neuromuscular Research Laboratory/Warrior Human Performance Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Fabio Ferrarelli
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Fabio Ferrarelli MD, PhD, 3811 O'Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: Warfighter Performance Department, Operational Readiness & Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center/Leidos, San Diego, CA, USA
Published:December 09, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2022.10.013

      Abstract

      Background

      Military personnel must maintain physical performance despite exposure to operational stressors such as sleep loss, caloric restriction and high cognitive load. Habitual sleep and specific sleep features are positively associated with fitness and may contribute to physical performance in operational settings. Further, by affecting muscle recovery, sleep may contribute to the ability to maintain performance across multiple days of exposure to operational stressors.

      Objectives

      We examined the role of individual differences in baseline sleep on baseline physical performance and on change in physical performance throughout exposure to simulated military operational stress (SMOS).

      Methods

      Military personnel (36 male, 9 female, 26.3 ± 5.3 years) completed a 5-day SMOS protocol during which they completed a tactical mobility test daily. Sleep questionnaires were administered at intake and sleep was monitored each night with polysomnography. Lasso regressions were used to identify meaningful predictors of physical performance at baseline and of change in physical performance across SMOS.

      Results

      Better aerobic fitness, lower daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and lower absolute slow wave activity (0.5-4 Hz) predicted better physical performance at baseline (66.1% of variance explained), but did not relate to changes in performance.

      Conclusions

      Collectively, higher daytime sleepiness and slow wave activity may reflect more chronic exposure to insufficient sleep and higher baseline sleep drive, which in turn led to compromised physical performance. The findings suggest that low self-report sleepiness and low objective slow wave activity may reflect two quantifiable markers of healthy sleep behaviors that have implications for operational performance.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Arnal PJ
        • Sauvet F
        • Leger D
        • et al.
        Benefits of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and recovery.
        Sleep. 2015; 38: 1935-1943https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.5244
        • Chang SP
        • Chen YH.
        Relationships between sleep quality, physical fitness and body mass index in college freshmen.
        J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015; 55: 1234-1241
        • Kirschen GW
        • Jones JJ
        • Hale L.
        The impact of sleep duration on performance among competitive athletes: a systematic literature review.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2020; 30: 503-512https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000622
        • Kline CE.
        The bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep: implications for exercise adherence and sleep improvement.
        Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014; 8: 375-379https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827614544437
        • Mah CD
        • Mah KE
        • Kezirian EJ
        • Dement WC.
        The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players.
        Sleep. 2011; 34: 943-950https://doi.org/10.5665/SLEEP.1132
        • Ritland BM
        • Simonelli G
        • Gentili RJ
        • et al.
        Effects of sleep extension on cognitive/motor performance and motivation in military tactical athletes.
        Sleep Med. 2019; 58: 48-55https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2019.03.013
        • Antunes BM
        • Campos EZ
        • Parmezzani SS
        • Santos RV
        • Franchini E
        • Lira FS.
        Sleep quality and duration are associated with performance in maximal incremental test.
        Physiol Behav. 2017; 177: 252-256https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.05.014
        • Roberts SSH
        • Teo WP
        • Aisbett B
        • Warmington SA.
        Extended sleep maintains endurance performance better than normal or restricted sleep.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019; 51: 2516-2523https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002071
      1. FM 7-22 Holistic Health and Fitness. Department of the Army; 2020. Accessed February 18, 2022. Available at: https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/ARN30714-FM_7-22-000-WEB-1.pdf

        • Good CH
        • Brager AJ
        • Capaldi VF
        • Mysliwiec V.
        Sleep in the United States military.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020; 45: 176-191https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0431-7
        • Edgar DT
        • Gill ND
        • Beaven CM
        • Zaslona JL
        • Driller MW.
        Sleep duration and physical performance during a 6-week military training course.
        J Sleep Res. 2021; 30: e13393https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13393
        • Shapiro CM
        • Warren PM
        • Trinder J
        • et al.
        Fitness facilitates sleep.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 1984; 53: 1-4https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00964680
        • Melancon MO
        • Lorrain D
        • Dionne IJ.
        Sleep depth and continuity before and after chronic exercise in older men: electrophysiological evidence.
        Physiol Behav. 2015; 140: 203-208https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.031
        • Driver HS
        • Meintjes AF
        • Rogers GG
        • Shapiro CM.
        Submaximal exercise effects on sleep patterns in young women before and after an aerobic training programme.
        Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1988; 574: 8-13
        • Stepan ME
        • Altmann EM
        • Fenn KM.
        Slow wave sleep during a brief nap is related to reduced cognitive deficits during sleep deprivation.
        Sleep. 2021; (Published online June 22): zsab152https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsab152
        • Dattilo M
        • Antunes HKM
        • Medeiros A
        • et al.
        Sleep and muscle recovery: endocrinological and molecular basis for a new and promising hypothesis.
        Med Hypotheses. 2011; 77: 220-222https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.04.017
        • Mônico-Neto M
        • Dáttilo M
        • Ribeiro DA
        • et al.
        REM sleep deprivation impairs muscle regeneration in rats.
        Growth Factors. 2017; 35: 12-18https://doi.org/10.1080/08977194.2017.1314277
        • Conkright WR
        • Beckner ME
        • Sinnott AM
        • et al.
        Neuromuscular performance and hormonal responses to military operational stress in men and women.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2021; 35: 1296-1305https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000004013
        • Buysse DJ
        • Reynolds CF
        • Monk TH
        • Berman SR
        • Kupfer DJ.
        The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research.
        Psychiatry Res. 1989; 28: 193-213https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4
        • Morin CM.
        Insomnia: Psychological Assessment and Management. xvii. Guilford Press, 1993: 238
        • Johns MW.
        A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale.
        Sleep. 1991; 14: 540-545https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/14.6.540
        • Proessl F
        • Canino MC
        • Beckner ME
        • et al.
        Use-dependent corticospinal excitability is associated with resilience and physical performance during simulated military operational stress.
        J Appl Physiol. 2021; (Published online December 2:japplphysiol.00628.2021)https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00628.2021
        • Beckner ME
        • Conkright WR
        • Eagle SR
        • et al.
        Impact of simulated military operational stress on executive function relative to trait resilience, aerobic fitness, and neuroendocrine biomarkers.
        Physiol Behav. 2021; 236113413https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113413
        • LaGoy AD
        • Sinnott AM
        • Eagle SR
        • et al.
        Combined effects of time-of-day and simulated military operational stress on perception-action coupling performance.
        Chronobiol Int. 2022; (Published online September 21): 1-13https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2022.2125405
        • Borg G.
        Borg's Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales. viii. Human Kinetics, 1998: 104
        • Berry RB
        • Albertario CL
        • Harding SM
        • et al.
        The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications.
        American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2018
        • Vasko Jr, RC
        • Brunner DP
        • Monahan JP
        • et al.
        Power spectral analysis of EEG in a multiple-bedroom, multiple-polygraph sleep laboratory.
        Int J Med Inf. 1997; 46: 175-184https://doi.org/10.1016/s1386-5056(97)00064-6
        • Brunner DP
        • Vasko RC
        • Detka CS
        • Monahan JP
        • Reynolds 3rd, CF
        • Kupfer DJ.
        Muscle artifacts in the sleep EEG: automated detection and effect on all-night EEG power spectra.
        J Sleep Res. 1996; 5: 155-164https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2869.1996.00009.x
        • Doman J
        • Detka C
        • Hoffman T
        • et al.
        Automating the sleep laboratory: implementation and validation of digital recording and analysis.
        Int J Biomed Comput. 1995; 38: 277-290https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7101(05)80010-8
        • Friedman JH
        • Hastie T
        • Tibshirani R.
        Regularization paths for generalized linear models via coordinate descent.
        J Stat Softw. 2010; 33: 1-22https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v033.i01
        • McNeish DM.
        Using Lasso for predictor selection and to assuage overfitting: a method long overlooked in behavioral sciences.
        Multivar Behav Res. 2015; 50: 471-484https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2015.1036965
        • Soehner AM
        • Bertocci MA
        • Levenson JC
        • et al.
        Longitudinal associations between sleep patterns and psychiatric symptom severity in high-risk and community comparison youth.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019; 58: 608-617https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.09.448
        • Medicine AC of S
        ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription.
        Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014
        • National Academies of Sciences E and MD of B and SS and EB on C Youth and Families
        Committee on the well being of military families. demographic and military service characteristics of military families.
        in: Le Menestrel S Kizer K Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. National Academies Press, 2019
        • Chasens ER
        • Sereika SM
        • Weaver TE
        • Umlauf MG.
        Daytime sleepiness, exercise, and physical function in older adults.
        J Sleep Res. 2007; 16: 60-65https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00576.x
        • West SD
        • Kohler M
        • Nicoll DJ
        • Stradling JR.
        The effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on physical activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised controlled trial.
        Sleep Med. 2009; 10: 1056-1058https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2008.11.007
        • Nindl BC
        • Billing DC
        • Drain JR
        • et al.
        Perspectives on resilience for military readiness and preparedness: report of an international military physiology roundtable.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2018; 21: 1116-1124https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.005
        • Chennaoui M
        • Arnal PJ
        • Sauvet F
        • Léger D.
        Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue?.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2015; 20: 59-72https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.008
        • Chennaoui M
        • Vanneau T
        • Trignol A
        • et al.
        How does sleep help recovery from exercise-induced muscle injuries?.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2021; 24: 982-987https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2021.05.007
        • Borbely AA
        • Daan S
        • Wirz-Justice A
        • Deboer T.
        The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.
        J Sleep Res. 2016; 25: 131-143https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12371
        • Souissi W
        • Hammouda O
        • Ayachi M
        • et al.
        Partial sleep deprivation affects endurance performance and psychophysiological responses during 12-minute self-paced running exercise.
        Physiol Behav. 2020; 227113165https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113165