The current study attempted to explore the possible temporal direction of the relationship between sleep problems and non-physical bullying perpetration as well as non-physical bullying victimization among adolescents.
The study used a longitudinal panel survey design with a 6-month interval.
A cluster random sampling method was conducted to recruit students from junior high schools in Northern Taiwan.
Eight hundred twenty-two students (46.6% were boys) completed a survey at 2 waves.
Adolescents reported their sleep problems, non-physical bullying perpetration, and non-physical bullying victimization in both waves.
The results from cross-lagged panel models revealed that sleep problems at time 1 significantly predicted non-physical bullying victimization at time 2, but not in the opposite direction. In addition, non-physical bullying perpetration at time 1 significantly predicted sleep problems at time 2, but not in the opposite direction. No significant differences emerged between male and female adolescents in the cross-lagged model of sleep problems with non-physical bullying perpetration and non-physical bullying victimization.
This study advances the literature by revealing that sleep problems may be a consequence, not a precursor, of adolescent non-physical bullying perpetration and a precursor, not a consequence, of non-physical bullying victimization. Intervention programs aimed at preventing adolescents from being non-physically bullied may consider improving their sleep quality. Reducing adolescents' non-physical bullying perpetration may also improve sleep quality along the way.
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Published online: November 16, 2022
Accepted: October 19, 2022
Received in revised form: September 9, 2022
Received: January 17, 2022
Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
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