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Multidimensional perfectionism and poor sleep: A meta-analysis of bivariate associations

Published:November 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2022.09.015

      Abstract

      The link between perfectionism and poor sleep has been intensively debated, and previous studies on perfectionism-sleep associations have yielded mixed results. Recent research suggests that the two-dimensional perfectionism model, differentiating perfectionistic concerns (centered around concerns over imperfections) and perfectionistic strivings (centered around excessively high personal standards), may reconcile previously inconclusive findings, as both dimensions might be differentially related to sleep. Thus, to clarify the perfectionism-sleep link, this meta-analysis investigated relations of perfectionistic concerns and strivings with two well-established self-report measures of poor sleep. A systematic literature search yielded 55 effect sizes from 15 studies (N = 10,275) for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Perfectionistic concerns correlated positively with the Insomnia Severity Index (r+ = 0.221, 95% CI [0.102, 0.333], p = .004) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (r+ = 0.248, 95% CI [0.172, 0.321], p < .001). Perfectionistic strivings correlated positively, albeit less strongly, with the Insomnia Severity Index (r+ = 0.114, 95% CI [0.039, 0.189], p = .010), but not significantly with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (r+ = 0.028, 95% CI [-0.026, 0.082], p = .247). These meta-analytic findings indicate that perfectionistic concerns are substantially linked to poor sleep, whereas the relation of perfectionistic strivings with sleep is less evident. Although the identified associations were less robust for perfectionistic strivings than for perfectionistic concerns, previously used labels like “positive” or “adaptive” appear inappropriate for perfectionistic strivings in the context of sleep.

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