To examine associations between stress and work hours with sleep duration and insomnia symptoms among U.S.-born and Foreign-born Black adults.
A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.
Black adults (N = 16,315) with a mean age of 40 ± 0.1 years, mostly women (52.7%), college graduates (40.7%), and U.S.-born (82.5%).
Participants self-reported sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, frequent stress (yes/no), and work hours in the prior week (1-39 hours, 40 hours, ≥41 hours). Poisson regression with robust variance was used to test associations overall and by nativity.
Working ≥41 hours, frequent stress, and short sleep duration (<7 hours) were reported by 22%, 24.9%, and 43% of participants, respectively. U.S.-born and Foreign-born Black adults who reported frequent stress and working ≥41 hours vs. 40 hours had 60% and 19% higher prevalence of short sleep duration (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47, 1.74 and aPR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.25, respectively). Foreign-born Black adults who worked 1-39 hours vs. 40 hours, had higher prevalence of short sleep duration, aPR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.37. U.S.-born Black adults who worked ≥41 hours vs. 40 hours had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep: aPR = 1.33 [95% CI: 1.13, 1.56], trouble staying asleep: aPR = 1.33 [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]).
Frequent stress and working ≥41 hours are likely salient determinants of sleep health for U.S. and Foreign-born Black individuals. Further, less work hours (Foreign-born) while longer work hours (U.S.-born) were associated with short sleep duration. Stress and work hours may be factors for sleep health interventions among Black adults.
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Published online: November 16, 2022
Accepted: September 26, 2022
Received in revised form: September 12, 2022
Received: January 31, 2022
© 2022 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.