Research Article| Volume 9, ISSUE 2, P190-195, April 2023

Download started.


Sleep and self-efficacy: The role of domain specificity in predicting sleep health

  • Author Footnotes
    # Present address: 800 W Franklin St. Rm. 203, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.
    Sarah M. Ghose
    # Present address: 800 W Franklin St. Rm. 203, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.
    Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Joseph M. Dzierzewski
    Corresponding author: Joseph Dzierzewski, PhD, National Sleep Foundation, 2001 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA
    National Sleep Foundation, Washington, DC, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    # Present address: 800 W Franklin St. Rm. 203, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.
    Natalie D. Dautovich
    # Present address: 800 W Franklin St. Rm. 203, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.
    Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    # Present address: 800 W Franklin St. Rm. 203, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.
Published:November 01, 2022DOI:



      Although a number of empirically supported sleep interventions exist, sleep-related beliefs remain largely unexplored as clinical tools for enhancing existing interventions. The present study aimed to determine the differential associations between general and sleep self-efficacy with sleep health among a sample of adults


      Participants were 3284 adults (Mean Age = 43 years, 48.5% female, 6.4% other-identifying, 80.8% white).


      Participants completed measures of self-efficacy (general and sleep self-efficacy) and sleep health as part of their involvement in a larger online study. General self-efficacy and sleep self-efficacy were measured with the General Self-Efficacy and Sleep Self-Efficacy scales respectively. Sleep was assessed with the RegUlarity, Satisfaction, Alertness, Timing, Efficiency, Duration scale. A structural equation model was conducted to determine the associations between measures of general and sleep self-efficacy and sleep health, represented by 2-factors derived from the RegUlarity, Satisfaction, Alertness, Timing, Efficiency, Duration measure.


      The structural model evidenced adequate to good fit to the data and indicated that both general and sleep self-efficacies were directly associated with the latent sleep quality/quantity and circadian rhythm outcomes. Higher general and sleep self-efficacies were positively associated with sleep regularity, timing, and alertness. Higher sleep self-efficacy and lower general self-efficacy were associated with higher sleep satisfaction, duration, and efficiency.


      Findings highlight the importance of domain specificity in the association between self-efficacy and sleep health outcomes. There is a need for more research into and application of interventions targeted toward increasing sleep self-efficacy as a potential avenue to improve sleep health.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Eaton DK
        • McKnight-Eily LR
        • Lowry R
        • Perry GS
        • Presley-Cantrell L
        • Croft JB.
        Prevalenceof insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students-United States, 2007.
        J Adol Health. 2009; 46: 399-401
        • Liu Y
        • Wheaton AG
        • Chapman DP
        • Cunningham TJ
        • Lu H
        • Croft JB.
        Prevalence of healthy sleep duration among adults-United States, 2014.
        Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rep. 2014; 65: 137-141
        • Grandner MA
        • Martin JL
        • Patel NP
        • et al.
        Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: data from the U.S. behavioral risk factor surveillance system.
        Sleep. 2012; 35: 395-406B
        • Matricciani L
        • Bin YS
        • Lallukka T
        • et al.
        Past, present, and future: trends in sleep duration and implications for public health.
        Sleep Health. 2017; 3: 317-323
        • Killgore WDS
        • Balkin TJ
        • Yarnell AM
        • Capaldi II VF
        Sleep deprivation impairs recognition of specific emotions.
        Neurobiol Sleep Circ Rhythms. 2017; 3: 10-16
        • Dzierzewski JM
        • Dautovich N
        • Ravyts S.
        Sleep and cognition in older adults.
        Sleep Med Clin. 2018; 13: 93-106
        • Wardle-Pinkston S
        • Slavish DC
        • Taylor DJ.
        Insomnia and cognitive performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2019; 48: 1-9
        • Buysse DJ.
        Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter?.
        Sleep. 2014; 37: 9-17
        • Bootzin RR
        • Nicassio R.
        Behavioral treatments for insomnia.
        in: Hersen M Eisler RM Miller PM Progress in Behavior Modification. 6th vol. Academic Press, 1978
        • Williams J
        • Roth A
        • Vatthauer K
        • McCrae CS.
        Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia.
        Chest. 2013; 143: 554-565
        • Morin CM
        • Blais F
        • Savard J.
        Are changes in beliefs and attitudes about sleep related to sleep improvements in the treatment of insomnia?.
        Behav Res Ther. 2002; 40: 741-752
        • Yang C
        • Chou CP
        • Hsiao F.
        The association of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep with vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbance in young adults.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2011; 9: 86-91
        • Azjen I.
        From intention to actions: a theory of planned behavior.
        in: Kuhl J Beckman J Action Control: SSP Springer Series in Social Psychology. Springer, Berlin, Germany1985: 11-39
        • Prochaska JO
        • Velicer WF.
        The transtheoretical model of health behavior change.
        Am J Health Prom. 1997; 12: 38-48
        • Becker MH.
        The health belief model and sick role behavior.
        Health Edu Mon. 1974; 2: 324-473
        • Knowlden AP
        • Sharma M
        • Bernard AL.
        A theory of planned behavior research model for Predicting the sleep intentions and behaviors of undergraduate college students.
        J Primary Prev. 2012; 33: 19-31
        • Stepnowsky CJ
        • MR Marler
        • S Ancoli-Israel
        Determinants of nasal CPAP compliance.
        Sleep Med. 2002; 3: 239-247
        • Olsen S
        • Smith S
        • Oei T
        • Douglas J.
        Health belief model predicts adherence to CPAP before experience with CPAP.
        Eur Resp J. 2008; 32: 710-717
        • Sarkar U
        • Ali S
        • Whooley MA.
        Self-efficacy and health status in patients with coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul study.
        Psychosom Med. 2007; 69: 306-312
        • Williams KE
        • Bond MJ.
        The roles of self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and social support in the self-care behaviours of diabetics.
        Psych, Health, Med. 2002; 7: 127-141
        • McAuley E.
        Self-efficacy and the maintenance of exercise participation in older adults.
        J Behav Med. 1993; 16: 103-113
        • Bluestein D
        • Rutledge CM
        • Healey AC.
        Psychosocial correlates of insomnia severity in primary care.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2010; 23: 204-211
        • Rutledge CM
        • LaGuardia AC
        • Bluestein D.
        Predictors of self-efficacy for sleep in primary care.
        J Clin Nurs. 2012; 22: 1254-1261
        • Bandura A.
        Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
        Psych Rev. 1977; 84: 191-215
        • Bandura A.
        Reflections on self-efficacy.
        Adv Behav Res Ther. 1978; 1: 237-269
        • Huang Y
        • Shuyanbola OO
        • Smith PD.
        Association of health literacy and medication self-efficacy with medication adherence and diabetes control.
        Patient Pref Adher. 2018; 12: 793-802
        • Roach JB
        • Yadrick MK
        • Johnson JT
        • Boudreaux LJ
        • Forsythe III WA
        • W Billon
        Using self-efficacy to predict weight loss among young adults.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 1357-1359
        • Mead MP
        • Irish LA.
        Application of health behaviour theory to sleep health improvement.
        J Sleep Res. 2019; 29: e12950
        • LeGanger A
        • Kraft P
        • Roysamb E.
        Perceived self-efficacy in health behaviour research: conceptualization, measurement, and correlates.
        Psych Health. 2000; 15: 51-69
        • Somers TJ
        • Shelby RA
        • Keefe FJ
        • et al.
        Disease severity and domain-specific arthritis self-efficacy: relationships to pain and functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthr Care Res. 2010; 62
        • Shelby RA
        • Somers TJ
        • Keefe FJ
        • Pells JJ
        • Dixon KE
        • Blumenthal JA.
        Domain specific self-efficacy mediates the impact of pain catastrophizing on pain and disability in overweight and obese osteoarthritis patients.
        J Pain. 2008; 9: 912-919
        • Schutte NS
        • Malouff JM.
        General and realm-specific self-efficacy: connections to life functioning.
        Curr Psych. 2016; 35 (-269): 361
        • Buhrmester M
        • Kwang T
        • Gosling SD.
        Amazon's mechanical turk: a new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data?.
        Pers Psych Sci. 2011; 6: 3-5
        • Schwarzer R
        • Jerusalem M.
        Generalized self-efficacy scale.
        in: Weinman J Wright S Johnston M Measures in Health Psychology: A User’s Portfolio. Causal and Control Beliefs. Nfer-Nelson Publishing Co Ltd, Windsor1995: 35-37
        • Lacks P.
        Behavioral Treatment for Persistent Insomnia.
        Pergamon Press, 1987
        • Ravyts SG
        • Dzierzewski JM
        • Perez E
        • Donovan EK
        • Dautovich ND.
        Sleep health as measured by RU SATED: a psychometric evaluation.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2019;
        • Arbuckle JL.
        Amos [computer software].
        IBM SPSS, Chicago, IL2020 (Version 27)
        • Tabachnick BG
        • Fidell LS.
        Using Multivariate Statistics.
        5th ed. Pearson Education Inc, Boston, MA2007
        • Nichols J
        • Schutte NS
        • Brown RF
        • Dennis C
        • Price I.
        The impact of a self-efficacy intervention on short-term breast-feeding outcomes.
        Health Educ Behav. 2009; 36: 250-259