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Association between short sleep duration and intake of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

  • Farnaz Shahdadian
    Affiliations
    Students’ Scientific Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
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  • Behnoosh Boozari
    Affiliations
    Students’ Scientific Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
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  • Parvane Saneei
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Parvane Saneei, PhD, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 81745-151, Isfahan, Iran
    Affiliations
    Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Search for articles by this author
Published:November 22, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2022.07.006

      Abstract

      Background

      Findings of previous investigations that evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and sugar or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intake have been inconsistent. We aimed to summarize extant research that assessed the relation between short sleep duration and sugar and SSB intake.

      Methods

      A comprehensive search of PubMed, ISI Web of Sciences, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, and Google Scholar was conducted. All observational studies that reported sleep duration as the exposure and intake of sugar or sugary drinks as the outcome were included. The quality of included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The body of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Random and fixed effects models were used to estimate pooled OR and 95% confidence intervals.

      Results

      Twenty-two studies in children and twelve in adults were included in the systematic review. Only 10 studies in children and 3 investigations in adults provided odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for this association and could be included in the meta-analysis. All studies had a cross-sectional design and found a negative association between sleep duration and sugar in children, but not in adults. SSB intake was lower in those with sufficient sleep in all populations. Compared with those with sufficient sleep, children with short sleep duration had 16% (significant) higher odds of consuming sugar (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.21), 21% higher odds of soda intake (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.26), and 92% higher odds of consuming energy drink intake (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.66, 2.22). However, sleep duration was not significantly associated with soft drink intake in children (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.48). In adults, the odds of drinking soda in those with short sleep duration was 1.2 times more than in those with sufficient sleep (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.28). Also, low vs. optimal sleep duration in adults was associated with a 58% increased intake of energy drinks (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.31, 1.90). Of note, these findings in the adult population resulted from only 2 included investigations, due to the limited number of studies.

      Conclusion

      The evidence reviewed supports a significant association between shorter sleep duration and higher SSBs intake in both children and adults, while such association with higher total sugar intake was significant in children but not in adults. Further research with more accurate measurements, sex-specific, and prospective designs should be carried out to clarify the causality and underlying mechanisms.

      Keywords

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