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Gender differences in the prevalence of and trends in sleep patterns and prescription medications for insomnia among US adults, 2005 to 2018

  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Lei Zuo
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Xia Chen
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Mingliang Liu
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Shan Dong
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
    Affiliations
    Guangzhou First People's Hospital, The Second Affiliated Hospital of South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
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  • Li Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Georgia Prevention Institute, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia, USA
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  • Guangzhen Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Zhiyu Zhai
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Long Zhou
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Haiyan Chen
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors: Haiyan Chen, MD, MPH, Department of Parasitic Disease and Endemic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 1 Qi De road, Guangzhou, 510440, China
    Affiliations
    Department of Parasitic Disease and Endemic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China
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  • Yuan Wei
    Correspondence
    Yuan Wei, PhD, Center for Scientific Research and Institute of Exercise and Health, Sport University, No. 1268,Guangzhou Avenue Middle, Guangzhou, 510500, China
    Affiliations
    Center for Scientific Research and Institute of Exercise and Health, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Liping Shi
    Correspondence
    Liping Shi, MD, PhD, Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, 613 West Huangpu Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510630, China
    Affiliations
    Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Guang Hao
    Correspondence
    Guang Hao, MD, PhD, Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, 601 West Huangpu Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510632, China
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China

    Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed to this work equally.
Published:September 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2022.07.004

      Abstract

      Background

      Evidence indicates that the burden of sleep disorders is increasing, yet recent trends have not been examined.

      Objective

      To examine the prevalence of and trends in sleep patterns and medications commonly used for insomnia (MCUFI) in US adults from 2005 through 2018.

      Methods

      A total of 39,749 participants aged 20 years or older from 7 consecutive National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles during 2005-2018 were included.

      Results

      The age-standardized prevalence of trouble sleeping and using MCUFI was higher in women than men, but men tended to sleep less (sleep duration <7 hours) and were more likely to have sleep disorders. The temporal trends in sleep disorders and MCUFI were similar in men and women, except that trouble sleeping increased more in men (P = 0.024). The prevalence of insufficient sleep decreased from 33.6% in women and 38.1% in men in 2005-2006 to 20.5% in women and 28.6% in men in 2017-2018. The prevalence of MCUFI use was 13.3% in women and 8.9% in men in 2005-2006, peaked at 15.2% for men and 17.0% for women in 2013-2014, and decreased slightly in 2015-2018.

      Conclusion

      The prevalence of trouble sleeping and MCUFI use was higher in women, while the prevalence of short sleep duration and sleep disorders was higher in men. Sleep disorders, abnormal sleep duration, and MCUFI use increased at a broadly similar pace in men and women, except that trouble sleeping increased more in men.

      Keywords

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