Review Article|Articles in Press

Contextual considerations in infant sleep: Offering alternative interventions to families


      Infant sleep problems are one of the commonly reported reasons parents seek professional help, yet what constitutes a “sleep problem” depends on the models used to explain the development of infant sleep. The current models are based on research conducted in the western context where infant solitary sleeping is the norm. Parent-child co-sleeping is the norm in many cultures around the world. We argue that the primary focus of current research on parent-child interactions as the mediating context for the development of infant sleep problems has inherently made these models and ensuing interventions less sensitive and applicable to infant sleep problems in the context of co-sleeping families. When families present for help with infant sleep difficulties, extinction based behavioral interventions or interventions focused on reducing parental presence at bedtime are commonly recommended. These recommendations may not always align with cultural values and parenting practices of all families, therefore precluding these families from getting necessary help. In attempting to provide families with choices that depart from behavioral based interventions, this paper draws on research and adapts current models to propose an alternative to conceptualize perceptions of infant sleep problems that may be sensitive to and applied across various cultural and personal contexts. We attempt to provide a rationale for interventions that are inclusive and sensitive to families where reduced parental nighttime responsiveness may not be a preferred choice.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Henrich J
        • Heine SJ
        • Norenzayan A.
        The weirdest people in the world?.
        Behav Brain Sci. 2010; 33: 61-83
        • Ball HL
        • Tomori C
        • McKenna JJ.
        Toward an integrated anthropology of infant sleep.
        Am Anthropol. 2019; 121: 595-612
        • Camerota M
        • Propper CB
        • Teti DM.
        Intrinsic and extrinsic factors predicting infant sleep: moving beyond main effects.
        Dev Rev. 2019; 53100871
        • Ball HL.
        Evolution-informed maternal–infant health.
        Nat Ecol Evol. 2017; 1: 0073
        • Galland BC
        • Taylor BJ
        • Elder DE
        • Herbison P.
        Normal sleep patterns in infants and children: a systematic review of observational studies.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2012; 16: 213-222
        • Barry ES.
        What is “normal” infant sleep? Why we still do not know.
        Psychol Rep. 2021; 124: 651-692
        • Sadeh A
        • Mindell JA
        • Luedtke K
        • Wiegand B.
        Sleep and sleep ecology in the first 3 years: a web-based study.
        J Sleep Res. 2009; 18: 60-73
        • Henderson JMT
        • France KG
        • Owens JL
        • Blampied NM.
        Sleeping through the night: the consolidation of self-regulated sleep across the first year of life.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: e1081-e1087
        • Sadeh A
        • Anders TF.
        Infant sleep problems: origins, assessment, interventions.
        Infant Mental Health J. 1993; 14: 17-34
        • Weinraub M
        • Bender RH
        • Friedman SL
        • et al.
        Patterns of developmental change in infants' nighttime sleep awakenings from 6 through 36 months of age.
        Dev Psychol. 2012; 48: 1511-1528
        • Blampied NM
        • France KG.
        A behavioral model of infant sleep disturbance.
        J Appl Behav Anal. 1993; 26: 477-492
        • France KG
        • Blampied NM.
        REVIEW ARTICLE: Infant sleep disturbance: description of a problem behaviour process.
        Sleep Med Rev. 1999; 3: 265-280
        • Sadeh A
        • Tikotzky L
        • Scher A.
        Parenting and infant sleep.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2010; 14: 89-96
        • El-Sheikh M
        • Sadeh A.I.
        Sleep and development: introduction to the monograph.
        Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2015; 80: 1-14
        • McKenna JJ
        • Gettler L.
        Cultural influences on infant and childhood sleep biology, and the science that studies it: toward a more inclusive paradigm II.
        in: Loughlin G Marcus C Sleep and Breathing in Children. A Developmental Approach. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY2000: 183-221
        • Teti DM
        • Crosby B.
        Maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking: the role of maternal nighttime behavior.
        Child Dev. 2012; 83: 939-953
        • Sateia MJ.
        International classification of sleep disorders-third edition: highlights and modifications.
        Chest. 2014; 146: 1387-1394
        • Karraker K.
        The role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant night waking.
        J Early Intensive Behav Intervention. 2008; 5: 108-121
        • Rudzik AEF
        • Ball HL.
        Exploring maternal perceptions of infant sleep and feeding method among mothers in the United Kingdom: a qualitative focus group study.
        Matern Child Health J. 2016; 20: 33-40
        • Mindell JA
        • Sadeh A
        • Wiegand B
        • How TH
        • Goh DY.
        Cross-cultural differences in infant and toddler sleep.
        Sleep Med. 2010; 11: 274-280
        • Meltzer LJ
        • Mindell JA.
        Systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions for pediatric insomnia.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2014; 39: 932-948
        • Blunden S
        • Baills A.
        Treatment of behavioural sleep problems: asking the parents.
        J Otol Rhinol. 2013; (2013)
        • Honaker SM
        • Schwichtenberg AJ
        • Kreps TA
        • Mindell JA.
        Real-world implementation of infant behavioral sleep interventions: results of a parental survey.
        J Pediatr. 2018; 199 (.e102): 106-111
        • Loutzenhiser L
        • Hoffman J
        • Beatch J.
        Parental perceptions of the effectiveness of graduated extinction in reducing infant night-wakings.
        J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2014; 32: 282-291
        • Radesky JS
        • Zuckerman B
        • Silverstein M
        • et al.
        Inconsolable infant crying and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 131: e1857-e1864
        • Holland ML
        • Yoo B-K
        • Kitzman H
        • Chaudron L
        • Szilagyi PG
        • Temkin-Greener H
        Self-efficacy as a mediator between maternal depression and child hospitalizations in low-income urban families.
        Matern Child Health J. 2011; 15: 1011-1019
        • Hiscock H
        • Canterford L
        • Ukoumunne OC
        • Wake M.
        Adverse associations of sleep problems in Australian preschoolers: national population study.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 86-93
        • Maute M
        • Perren S.
        Ignoring children's bedtime crying: the power of western-oriented beliefs.
        Infant Mental Health J. 2018; 39: 220-230
        • BL Goodlin-Jones
        • Burnham MM
        • Gaylor EE
        • Anders TF.
        Night waking, sleep-wake organization, and self-soothing in the first year of life.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001; 22: 226-233
      1. Cassels T, Ockwell-Smith S, Middlemiss W, Kendall-Tackett K, Stevens H, Narvaez D. Is your baby's sleep a problem? Or is it just normal? Mother-baby sleep experts weigh in on normal infant sleep (White Paper). Praeclaus Press. press normal infant sleep 2.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed.

        • Sadeh A
        • Mindell J
        • Rivera L.
        My child has a sleep problem": a cross-cultural comparison of parental definitions.
        Sleep Med. 2011; 12: 478-482
        • Madhushika N
        • Bandara T.
        An assessment of the sleeping pattern in healthy … Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health.
        Sri Lanka J Child Health. 2021; 54: 644-649
        • Jenni OG
        • Werner H.
        Cultural issues in children's sleep: a model for clinical practice.
        Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011; 58: 755-763
        • Allen SL
        • Howlett MD
        • Coulombe JA
        • Corkum PV.
        ABCs of sleeping: a review of the evidence behind pediatric sleep practice recommendations.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2016; 29: 1-14
        • Esposito G
        • Setoh P
        • Bornstein MH.
        Beyond practices and values: toward a physio-bioecological analysis of sleeping arrangements in early infancy.
        Front Psychol. 2015; 6
        • LeVine AR
        • LeVine S
        • Leiderman PH
        • et al.
        Child care and culture: Lessons from Africa.
        Cambridge University Press, Cambridge1994
        • Anders TF.
        Infant sleep, nighttime relationships, and attachment.
        Psychiatry. 1994; 57: 11-21
        • Barry ES
        • McKenna JJ.
        Reasons mothers bedshare: a review of its effects on infant behavior and development.
        Infant Behav Dev. 2022; 66101684
        • McKenna JJ
        • Ball HL
        • Gettler LT.
        Mother–infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: what biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007; 134: 133-161
        • Sears M
        • Sears W.
        The Attachment Parenting Book: A Commonsense Guide to Understanding and Nurturing Your Baby.
        New York: Little, Brown and company, 2001
        • Whittingham K
        • Douglas P.
        Optimizing parent–infant sleep from birth to 6 months: a new paradigm.
        Infant Mental Health J. 2014; 35: 614-623
        • McKenna J
        • Mosko S
        • Richard C
        • et al.
        Experimental studies of infant-parent co-sleeping: mutual physiological and behavioral influences and their relevance to SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
        Early Hum Dev. 1994; 38: 187-201
        • Mosko S
        • Richard C
        • McKenna J
        • Drummond S.
        Infant sleep architecture during bedsharing and possible implications for SIDS.
        Sleep. 1996; 19: 677-684
        • Lozoff B
        • Askew GL
        • Wolf AW.
        Cosleeping and early childhood sleep problems: effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1996; 17: 9-15
        • Ball HL.
        Supporting parents who are worried about their newborn's sleep.
        BMJ. 2013; 346: f2344
        • Hiscock H
        • Bayer JK
        • Hampton A
        • Ukoumunne OC
        • Wake M.
        Long-term mother and child mental health effects of a population-based infant sleep intervention: cluster-randomized, controlled trial.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 122: e621-e627
        • Middlemiss W
        • Stevens H
        • Ridgway L
        • McDonald S
        • Koussa M.
        Response-based sleep intervention: helping infants sleep without making them cry.
        Early Hum Dev. 2017; 108: 49-57
        • Barry ES.
        Sleep consolidation, sleep problems, and co-sleeping: rethinking normal infant sleep as species-typical.
        J Genetic Psychol. 2021; : 1-22
        • Middlemiss W
        • Yaure R
        • Huey EL.
        Translating research-based knowledge about infant sleep into practice.
        J Am Assoc Nurse Practitioners. 2015; 27: 328-337
        • Ednick M
        • Cohen AP
        • McPhail GL
        • Beebe D
        • Simakajornboon N
        • Amin RS.
        A review of the effects of sleep during the first year of life on cognitive, psychomotor, and temperament development.
        Sleep. 2009; 32: 1449-1458
        • Boyce WT.
        The orchid and the dandelion: Why sensitive people struggle and how all can thrive.
        Australia: Pan Macmillan, 2019
        • Gunnar M.
        Social buffering of stress in development: a career perspective.
        Perspect Psychol Sci. 2017; 12: 355-373
        • Bennet L
        • Walker DW
        • Horne RSC.
        Waking up too early - the consequences of preterm birth on sleep development.
        J Physiol. 2018; 596: 5687-5708
        • Nachmias M
        • Gunnar M
        • Mangelsdorf S
        • Parritz RH
        • Buss K.
        Behavioral inhibition and stress reactivity: the moderating role of attachment security.
        Child Dev. 1996; 67: 508-522
        • Loutzenhiser L
        • Ahlquist A
        • Hoffman J.
        Infant and maternal factors associated with maternal perceptions of infant sleep problems.
        J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2011; 29: 460-471
        • Bilgin A
        • Wolke D.
        Development of comorbid crying, sleeping, feeding problems across infancy: neurodevelopmental vulnerability and parenting.
        Early Hum Dev. 2017; 109: 37-43
        • Baxter R
        • Merkel-Walsh R
        • Baxter BS
        • Lashley A
        • Rendell NR.
        Functional improvements of speech, feeding, and sleep after lingual frenectomy tongue-tie release: a prospective cohort study.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020; 59: 885-892
        • Hysing M
        • Sivertsen B
        • Stormark KM
        • Elgen I
        • Lundervold AJ.
        Sleep in children with chronic illness, and the relation to emotional and behavioral problems—a population-based study.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2008; 34: 665-670
        • MacDuffie Ph.D., KE
        • Shen Ph.D., MD
        • Dager M.D., SR
        • et al.
        Sleep onset problems and subcortical development in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2020; 177: 518-525
        • McNamara F
        • Sullivan CE.
        Sleep-disordered breathing and its effects on sleep in infants.
        Sleep. 1996; 19: 4-12
        • Thunström M.
        Severe sleep problems in infancy associated with subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 5.5 years of age.
        Acta Paediatr. 2002; 91: 584-592
        • DeLeon CW
        • Karraker KH.
        Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with night waking in 9-month-old infants.
        Infant Behav Dev. 2007; 30: 596-605
        • Scher A
        • Cohen D.
        Sleep as a mirror of developmental transitions in infancy: the case of crawling.
        Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2015; 80: 70-88
        • Ignatiuk D
        • Schaer B
        • McGinley B.
        High flow nasal cannula treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in infants and young children.
        Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020; 55: 2791-2798
        • Brockbank J
        • Astudillo CL
        • Che D
        • et al.
        Supplemental oxygen for treatment of infants with obstructive sleep apnea.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2019; 15: 1115-1123
        • Kahn M
        • Juda-Hanael M
        • Livne-Karp E
        • Tikotzky L
        • Anders TF
        • Sadeh A.
        Behavioral interventions for pediatric insomnia: one treatment may not fit all.
        Sleep. 2019;
        • Wu Q
        • Feng X.
        Infant emotion regulation and cortisol response during the first 2 years of life: association with maternal parenting profiles.
        Dev Psychobiol. 2020; 62: 1076-1091
        • Hill TD
        • Trinh HN
        • Wen M
        • Hale L.
        Perceived neighborhood safety and sleep quality: a global analysis of six countries.
        Sleep Med. 2016; 18: 56-60
        • Whitesell CJ
        • Crosby B
        • Anders TF
        • Teti DM.
        Household chaos and family sleep during infants’ first year.
        J Fam Psychol. 2018; 32: 622-631
        • Teti DM
        • Kim BR
        • Mayer G
        • Countermine M.
        Maternal emotional availability at bedtime predicts infant sleep quality.
        J Fam Psychol. 2010; 24: 307-315
        • Bowlby J.
        Vol. 1: Attachment. 2 ed.
        Basic Books, New York1982
        • Noriuchi M
        • Kikuchi Y
        • Senoo A.
        The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 63: 415-423
        • Bowlby J.
        Attachment and Loss: Volume II: Separation, Anxiety and Anger.
        Basic Books, New York1973
        • Troxel WM
        • Trentacosta CJ
        • Forbes EE
        • Campbell SB.
        Negative emotionality moderates associations among attachment, toddler sleep, and later problem behaviors.
        J Fam Psychol. 2013; 27: 127-136
        • Henderson JMT
        • Blampied NM
        • France KG.
        Longitudinal study of infant sleep development: early predictors of sleep regulation across the first year.
        Nat Sci Sleep. 2020; 12: 949-957
        • Kahn M
        • Livne-Karp E
        • Jda-Hanael M
        • et al.
        Behavioral interventions for infant sleep problems: the role of parental cry tolerance and sleep-related cognitions.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2020; 16
        • Higley E
        • Dozier M.
        Nighttime maternal responsiveness and infant attachment at one year.
        Attach Hum Dev. 2009; 11: 347-363
        • Ball HL
        • Hooker E
        • Kelly PJ.
        Where will the baby sleep? Attitudes and practices of new and experienced parents regarding cosleeping with their newborn infants.
        Am Anthropol. 1999; 101: 143-151
        • Voltaire ST
        • Teti DM.
        Early nighttime parental interventions and infant sleep regulation across the first year.
        Sleep Med. 2018; 52: 107-115
        • Biringen Z
        • Brown D
        • Donaldson L
        • Green S
        • Krcmarik S
        • Lovas G.
        Adult Attachment Interview: Linkages with dimensions of emotional availability for mothers and their pre-kindergarteners.
        Attach Hum Dev. 2000; 2: 188-202
        • Philbrook LE
        • Teti DM.
        Bidirectional associations between bedtime parenting and infant sleep: parenting quality, parenting practices, and their interaction.
        J Fam Psychol. 2016; 30: 431-441
        • Jian N
        • Teti DM.
        Emotional availability at bedtime, infant temperament, and infant sleep development from one to six months.
        Sleep Med. 2016; 23: 49-58
        • Blair PS
        • Sidebotham P
        • Pease A
        • Fleming PJ.
        Bed-sharing in the absence of hazardous circumstances: is there a risk of sudden infant death syndrome? An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK.
        PLoS One. 2014; 9 (e107799-e107799)
        • Barry ES.
        Co-sleeping as a proximal context for infant development: the importance of physical touch.
        Infant Behav Dev. 2019; 57101385
        • McKenna JJ
        • McDade T.
        Why babies should never sleep alone: a review of the co-sleeping controversy in relation to SIDS, bedsharing and breast feeding.
        Paediatr Respir Rev. 2005; 6: 134-152
        • Teti DM
        • Shimizu M
        • Crosby B
        • Kim B-R.
        Sleep arrangements, parent-infant sleep during the first year, and family functioning.
        Dev Psychol. 2016; 52: 1169-1181
        • Santos IS
        • Barros AJ
        • Barros FC
        • Munhoz TN
        • Da Silva BDP
        • Matijasevich A
        Mother-child bed-sharing trajectories and psychiatric disorders at the age of 6 years.
        J Affect Disord. 2017; 208: 163-169
        • McKenna JJ
        • Gettler LT.
        There is no such thing as infant sleep, there is no such thing as breastfeeding, there is only breastsleeping.
        Acta Paediatr. 2016; 105: 17-21
        • Rudzik AEF
        • Ball HL.
        Biologically normal sleep in the mother-infant dyad.
        Am J Hum Biol. 2020; (n/a(n/a)): e23589
        • Beijers R
        • Riksen-Walraven JM
        • de Weerth C.
        Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old human infants: associations with the infants' early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping.
        Stress. 2013; 16: 267-277
        • Martini J
        • Petzoldt J
        • Knappe S
        • Garthus-Niegel S
        • Asselmann E
        • Wittchen HU.
        Infant, maternal, and familial predictors and correlates of regulatory problems in early infancy: the differential role of infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depression.
        Early Hum Dev. 2017; 115: 23-31
        • McKenna JJ
        • Mosko S
        • Dungy C
        • McAninch J.
        Sleep and arousal patterns of co-sleeping human mother/infant pairs: a preliminary physiological study with implications for the study of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 1990; 83: 331-347
        • Knappe S
        • Pfarr AL
        • Petzoldt J
        • Härtling S
        • Martini J.
        Parental cognitions about sleep problems in infants: a systematic review.
        Front Psychiatry. 2020; 11554221
        • Kim EJ
        • Dimsdale JE.
        The effect of psychosocial stress on sleep: a review of polysomnographic evidence.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2007; 5: 256-278
        • Keys EM
        • Benzies KM.
        A proposed nursing theory: infant sleep and development.
        Nurs Sci Q. 2018; 31: 279-286
        • Petch J
        • Halford WK.
        Psycho-education to enhance couples' transition to parenthood.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2008; 28: 1125-1137
        • Feinberg ME
        • Jones DE
        • Hostetler ML
        • Roettger ME
        • Paul IM
        • Ehrenthal DB.
        Couple-focused prevention at the transition to parenthood, a randomized trial: effects on coparenting, parenting, family violence, and parent and child adjustment.
        Prev Sci. 2016; 17: 751-764
        • Mindell JA
        • Leichman ES
        • Lee C
        • Williamson AA
        • Walters RM.
        Implementation of a nightly bedtime routine: how quickly do things improve?.
        Infant Behav Dev. 2017; 49: 220-227
        • Mindell JA
        • Sadeh A
        • Kohyama J
        • How TH.
        Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: a cross-cultural comparison.
        Sleep Med. 2010; 11: 393-399
        • Achermann P
        • Borbély AA.
        Mathematical models of sleep regulation.
        Front Biosci-Landmark. 2003; 8: 683-693
        • Stothard ER
        • McHill AW
        • Depner CM
        • et al.
        Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend.
        Curr Biol. 2017; 27: 508-513
        • Lewy AJ
        • Wehr TA
        • Goodwin FK
        • Newsome DA
        • Markey SP.
        Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans.
        Science. 1980; 210: 1267-1269
        • Akacem LD
        • Wright KP
        • Jr., LeBourgeois MK
        Sensitivity of the circadian system to evening bright light in preschool-age children.
        Physiol Rep. 2018; 6
        • LeBourgeois MK
        • Carskadon MA
        • Akacem LD
        • et al.
        Circadian phase and its relationship to nighttime sleep in toddlers.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2013; 28: 322-331
        • Akacem LD
        • Wright KP
        • Jr., LeBourgeois MK
        Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: a field study.
        Neurobiol Sleep Circadian Rhythms. 2016; 1: 27-31
        • Pomerleau A
        • Malcuit G
        • Sabatier C.
        Child-rearing practices and parental beliefs in three cultural groups of Montréal: Québécois, Vietnamese, Haitian.
        Cultural approaches to parenting. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US1991: 45-68
        • Wolf AW
        • Lozoff B
        • Latz S
        • Paludeto R.
        Parental theories in the management of young children's sleep in Japan, Italy, and the United States.
        Parents’ cultural belief systems. Guilford Press, New York1996: 364-384
        • Meléndez L.
        Parental beliefs and practices around early self-regulation: the impact of culture and immigration.
        Infants Young Child. 2005; 18
        • Ball HL
        • Russell C.
        Nighttime nurturing: an evolutionary perspective on breastfeeding and sleep.
        Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development: From Research to Practice and Policy. Oxford University Press, 2012
        • Crane D
        • Ball HL.
        A qualitative study in parental perceptions and understanding of SIDS-reduction guidance in a UK bi-cultural urban community.
        BMC Pediatr. 2016; 16: 23
        • Gilmour H
        • Ramage-Morin PL
        • Wong SL.
        Infant bed sharing in Canada.
        Health Rep. 2019; 30: 13-19
        • Nomaguchi K
        • Milkie MA.
        Sociological perspectives on parenting stress: how social structure and culture shape parental strain and the well-being of parents and children.
        in: Deater-Deckard K Panneton R Parental Stress and Early Child Development: Adaptive and Maladaptive Outcomes. Springer International Publishing, Cham2017: 47-73
        • Cassells RC
        • Evans GW.
        Ethnic variation in poverty and parenting stress.
        Parental stress and early child development: Adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland2017: 15-45
        • Reader JM
        • Teti DM
        • Cleveland MJ.
        Cognitions about infant sleep: Interparental differences, trajectories across the first year, and coparenting quality.
        J Fam Psychol. 2017; 31: 453-463
        • Kärtner J
        • Keller H
        • Yovsi RD.
        Mother–infant interaction during the first 3 months: the emergence of culture-specific contingency patterns.
        Child Dev. 2010; 81: 540-554
        • LeBourgeois MK
        • Wright Jr KP
        • HB LeBourgeois
        • OG Jenni
        Dissonance between parent-selected bedtimes and young children's circadian physiology influences nighttime settling difficulties.
        Mind Brain Educ. 2013; 7: 234-242
        • Ball HL
        • Taylor CE
        • Thomas V
        • Douglas PS
        • the SBYwg.
        Development and evaluation of ‘sleep, baby & you’—an approach to supporting parental well-being and responsive infant caregiving.
        PLoS One. 2020; 15e0237240