The association between dietary behaviors and insomnia among adolescent girls in Iran

  • Author Footnotes
    # Equally as first author.
    Sara Beigrezaei
    # Equally as first author.
    Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
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  • Author Footnotes
    # Equally as first author.
    Mohsen Mazidi
    # Equally as first author.
    Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK

    Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
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  • Ian G. Davies
    Research Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
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  • Amin Salehi-Abargouei
    Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
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  • Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
    Corresponding author: Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, MD, PhD, Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Azadi square, Mashhad, Iran. Tel.: +985133223822.
    Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
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  • Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh
    Corresponding author: Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, PhD, Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Shohadaye gomnam BLD. ALEM square, Yazd, Iran. Tel.: +983531492228.
    Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    # Equally as first author.
Published:February 09, 2022DOI:



      Insomnia is associated with a poor quality of life and increased risk of somatic and social problems. The aim of current study was to investigate the relationship between dietary behaviors and insomnia in Iranian adolescent girls.


      This cross-sectional study was performed among 988 girls aged 12-18 years. A questionnaire was used to determine dietary behaviors in nine domains. To assess insomnia, a validated Iranian version of the Insomnia Severity Index was applied. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between dietary behaviors and insomnia in crude and adjusted models.


      Highest adherence to regular meal consumption was related to the lowest odds of insomnia (odds ratio [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.81). Compared with individuals who consumed breakfast never or once a week, those who always consumed breakfast had a lower likelihood of insomnia (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36-0.88). These associations remained significant in all adjusted models. Subjects who ate spicy food every day had 4.73 times greater odds of insomnia than individuals who never ate spicy food (OR: 4.73, 95% CI: 1.09-20.56). After controlling for age, menstruation, parent death, parents’ divorce and parents’ (mother and father) employment status, this relationship remained (OR: 4.59, 95% CI: 1.05-20.10); however, the association was no longer significant after controlling for the other covariates. No significant relationship was found between other dietary habits and insomnia for the unadjusted or adjusted models.


      Lowest rates of insomnia were found among participants who had the lowest frequency of eating spicy foods and the highest frequency of eating breakfast and eating regular meals. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.


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