Associations of sleep problems with health-risk behaviors and psychological well-being among Canadian adults

  • Haijiang Dai
    Centre for Disease Modelling, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Center of Clinical Pharmacology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
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  • Zhen Mei
    Manifold Data Mining, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Aijun An
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Yao Lu
    Co-corresponding author: Yao Lu, PhD, Center of Clinical Pharmacology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China. Tel.: 86 731 8861 8325; Fax: 86 731 8861 8325.
    Center of Clinical Pharmacology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
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  • Jianhong Wu
    Corresponding author: Jianhong Wu, PhD, Centre for Disease Modelling, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Tel.: 1 416 736 5243; Fax: 1 416 736 5698.
    Centre for Disease Modelling, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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Published:March 06, 2020DOI:



      Examine the associations of sleep problems with health-risk behaviors and psychological well-being in a representative sample of Canadian adults.




      The 2011-2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, conducted by Statistics Canada).


      Of all individuals taking part in the 2011–2012 CCHS, 42,600 participants aged ≥18 years from five provinces/territories (Nova Scotia, Quebec, Manitoba, Alberta, and Yukon) who participated in the sleep survey module were selected for this study.


      Health conditions were self-reported. Sleep problems referred to extreme sleep durations (either <5 or ≥10 hours) and insomnia symptom. Health-risk behaviors included physical inactivity, daily smoking, highly sedentary behavior, and insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Worse psychological well-being included having worse self-rated general health, worse self-rated mental health, and worse sense of belonging, and being dissatisfied with life.


      The participants represented 10,614,600 Canadian adults aged ≥18 years from the five abovementioned provinces/territories. A significantly higher prevalence of all health-risk behaviors and worse psychological well-being was found among participants with extreme sleep durations (than those with 7 to <8 hours) and insomnia symptom (than those without insomnia symptom). After multivariate adjustment, extreme sleep durations and insomnia symptom were still independently associated with increased odds of all health-risk behaviors and worse psychological well-being.


      Both extreme sleep durations and insomnia symptom were independently associated with health-risk behaviors and worse psychological well-being among Canadian adults.


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