Research Article| Volume 5, ISSUE 4, P401-408, August 2019

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Reducing late evening bedtime electronic device intentions and use among young adults

Published:April 26, 2019DOI:



      We examined (Study #1) the association of attitudes, subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) with intentions to reduce late evening electronic device (e-device) use and (Study #2) the impact of a brief theory-driven message on reducing the use.


      Young adults aged 18-30 years participated in Internet surveys to assess sleep quality, attitudes, SN, PBC, and intentions to reduce and patterns of late evening e-device use. In Study #1, participants (n = 160) were randomized to receive a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)–driven message based on information from the National Sleep Foundation and were assessed for intentions to decrease late evening e-device use immediately afterward. In Study #2, participants (n = 148) were given the same message but were assessed for behaviors 24 hours–1 week afterward.


      In Study #1, regressions indicated that less supportive attitudes and higher PBC were associated with higher intention to reduce e-device use at baseline (P < .01); intentions and PBC were associated with current use (P < .01). Participants receiving the message were more likely to reduce late evening e-device use intentions (adjusted odds ratio: 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-4.99). In Study #2, those receiving the intervention with attitudes consistent with limiting use were more likely to reduce use 24 hours–1 week after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio: 3.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-8.91).


      Attitudes and PBC were associated with intention to reduce late evening e-device use, and our brief TPB-driven message benefited young adults with attitudes inconsistent with use. TPB-based interventions can decrease late evening e-device use and promote better quantity and quality of sleep.


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