Advertisement

The impact of daytime light exposures on sleep and mood in office workers

Published:April 23, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2017.03.005

      Abstract

      Background

      By affecting the internal timing mechanisms of the brain, light regulates human physiology and behavior, perhaps most notably the sleep–wake cycle. Humans spend over 90% of their waking hours indoors, yet light in the built environment is not designed to affect circadian rhythms.

      Objective

      Using a device calibrated to measure light that is effective for the circadian system (circadian-effective light), collect personal light exposures in office workers and relate them to their sleep and mood.

      Setting

      The research was conducted in 5 buildings managed by the US General Services Administration.

      Participants

      This study recruited 109 participants (69 females), of whom 81 (54 females) participated in both winter and summer.

      Measurements

      Self-reported measures of mood and sleep, and objective measures of circadian-effective light and activity rhythms were collected for 7 consecutive days.

      Results

      Compared to office workers receiving low levels of circadian-effective light in the morning, receiving high levels in the morning is associated with reduced sleep onset latency (especially in winter), increased phasor magnitudes (a measure of circadian entrainment), and increased sleep quality. High levels of circadian-effective light during the entire day are also associated with increased phasor magnitudes, reduced depression, and increased sleep quality.

      Conclusions

      The present study is the first to measure personal light exposures in office workers using a calibrated device that measures circadian-effective light and relate those light measures to mood, stress, and sleep. The study's results underscore the importance of daytime light exposures for sleep health.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Turek F.W.
        Circadian clocks: not your grandfather's clock.
        Science. 2016; 354: 992-993
        • Klein D.C.
        • Moore R.Y.
        • Reppert S.M.
        Suprachiasmatic nucleus: The mind's clock.
        Oxford University Press, New York, NY1991
        • Jewett M.E.
        • Rimmer D.W.
        • Duffy J.F.
        • Klerman E.B.
        • Kronauer R.E.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        Human circadian pacemaker is sensitive to light throughout subjective day without evidence of transients.
        Am J Physiol. 1997; 273: 1800-1809
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Overington D.
        Self-luminous devices and melatonin suppression in adolescents.
        Light Res Technol. 2016; 43: 966-975
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Plitnick B.
        • Wood B.
        • Rea M.S.
        The impact of light from computer monitors on melatonin levels in college students.
        Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011; 32: 158-163
        • Chang A.-M.
        • Aeschbach D.
        • Duffy J.F.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2015; 112: 1232-1237
        • Cajochen C.
        • Frey S.
        • Anders D.
        • et al.
        Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance.
        J Appl Physiol. 2011; 110: 1432-1438
        • Murray G.
        • Harvey A.
        Circadian rhythms and sleep in bipolar disorder.
        Bipolar Disord. 2010; 12: 459-472
        • Costa I.C.
        • Carvalho H.N.
        • Fernandes L.
        Aging, circadian rhythms and depressive disorders: a review.
        Am J Neurodegener Dis. 2013; 2: 228-246
        • Gold A.K.
        • Sylvia L.G.
        2. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.
        Nat Sci Sleep. 2016; 8: 207-214
        • Stevens R.G.
        Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38: 963-970
        • Schernhammer E.
        • Feskanich D.
        • Liang G.
        J. H. Rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk among female nurses in the United States.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 178: 1434-1441
        • Smolensky M.
        • Hermida R.
        • Reinberg A.
        • Sackett-Lundeen L.
        • Portaluppi F.
        Circadian disruption: new clinical perspective of disease pathology and basis for chronotherapeutic intervention.
        Chronobiol Int. 2016; 33: 1101-1119
        • Reutrakul S.
        • Knutson K.L.
        Consequences of circadian disruption on Cardiometabolic health.
        Sleep Med Clin. 2015; 10: 455-468
        • Boubekri M.
        • Cheung I.
        • Reid K.
        • Wang C.
        • Zee P.
        Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2014; 10: 603-611
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Hamner R.
        • Bierman A.
        • Rea M.S.
        Comparisons of three practical field devices used to measure personal light exposures and activity levels.
        Light Res Technol. 2013; 45: 421-434
        • Rea M.S.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        A working threshold for acute nocturnal melatonin suppression from “white” light sources used in architectural applications.
        J Carcinog Mutagen. 2013; 4: 1000150
        • Illuminating Engineering Society
        The lighting handbook: Reference and application.
        10th ed. Illuminating Engineering Society, New York2011
        • Rea M.S.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Bullough J.D.
        • Bierman A.
        A model of phototransduction by the human circadian system.
        Brain Res Rev. 2005; 50: 213-228
        • Rea M.S.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Bierman A.
        • Hamner R.
        Modelling the spectral sensitivity of the human circadian system.
        Light Res Technol. 2012; 44: 386-396
        • Rea M.S.
        • Bullough J.D.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        Phototransduction for human melatonin suppression.
        J Pineal Res. 2002; 32: 209-213
        • Lucas R.
        • Hattar S.
        • Takao M.
        Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice.
        Science. 2003; 299: 245-247
        • Panda S.
        • Sato T.K.
        • Castrucci A.M.
        • et al.
        Melanopsin (Opn4) requirement for normal light-induced circadian phase shifting.
        Science. 2002; 298: 2213-2216
        • Ruby N.
        • Brennan T.
        • Xie X.
        Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light.
        Science. 2002; 298: 2211-2213
        • Berson D.M.
        • Dunn F.A.
        • Takao M.
        Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.
        Science. 2002; 295: 1070-1073
        • Belenky M.A.
        • Smeraski C.A.
        • Provencio I.
        • Sollars P.J.
        • Pickard G.E.
        Melanopsin ganglion cells receive bipolar and amacrine cell synapse.
        J Comp Neurol. 2003; 460: 380-393
        • Hattar S.
        • Lucas R.J.
        • Mrosovsky N.
        • et al.
        Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice.
        Nature. 2003; 424: 75-81
        • Bierman A.
        • Klein T.R.
        • Rea M.S.
        The Daysimeter: a device for measuring optical radiation as a stimulus for the human circadian system.
        Meas Sci Technol. 2005; 16: 2292-2299
        • Rea M.S.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Bierman A.
        • Bullough J.D.
        Circadian light.
        J Circadian Rhythms. 2010; 8: 2
        • Brainard G.C.
        • Hanifin J.P.
        • Greeson J.M.
        • Byrne B.
        • Glickman G.
        • Gerner E.
        • Rollag M.D.
        Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor.
        J Neurosci. 2001; 21: 6405-6412
        • Thapan K.
        • Arendt J.
        • Skene D.J.
        An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans.
        J Physiol. 2001; 535: 261-267
        • Rea M.S.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        Light as a circadian stimulus for architectural lighting.
        Lighting Res Technol. 2016; ([in press])https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153516682368
        • Zeitzer J.M.
        • Dijk D.-J.
        • Kronauer R.
        • Brown E.N.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression.
        J Physiol. 2000; 526: 695-702
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Bullough J.D.
        • Rea M.S.
        Spectral sensitivity of the circadian system.
        in: Paper presented at: Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). 2003 ([San Diego])
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Lesniak N.Z.
        • Rea M.S.
        Implications of controlled short-wavelength light exposure for sleep in older adults.
        BMC Res Notes. 2011; 8: 334
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Hunter C.M.
        • Higgins P.A.
        • et al.
        Tailored lighting intervention for persons with dementia and caregivers living at home.
        Sleep Health. 2015; 1: 322-330
        • Young C.R.
        • Jones G.E.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • et al.
        At-Sea trial of 24-h-based submarine Watchstanding schedules with high and low correlated color temperature light sources.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2015; 30: 144-154
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Rea M.S.
        Lack of short-wavelength light during the school day delays dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in middle school students.
        Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010; 31: 4
        • Sloane P.D.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Cohen L.
        Light as therapy for sleep disorders and depression in older adults.
        Clin Geriatr. 2008; 16: 25-31
        • Radloff L.S.
        The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population.
        Appl Psychol Measur. 1977; 1: 385-401
        • Cohen S.
        • Williamson G.
        Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States.
        in: Spacapan S. Oskamp S. The Social Psychology of Health. Sage, Newbury Park, California1988: 31-67
        • Buysse D.J.
        • Reynolds C.F.
        • Monk T.H.
        • Berman S.R.
        • Kupfer D.J.
        The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research.
        Psychiatry Res. 1989; 28: 193-213
        • Watson D.
        • Clark L.A.
        • Tellegen A.
        Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scale.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988; 54: 1063-1070
        • Cella D.
        • Riley W.
        • Stone A.
        • et al.
        The Patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) developed and tested its first wave of adult self-reported health outcome item banks: 2005–2008.
        J Clin Epidemiol. 2010; 63: 1179-1194
        • Figueiro M.G.
        Delayed sleep phase disorder: clinical perspective with a focus on light therapy.
        Nat Sci Sleep. 2016; 8: 91
        • Miller D.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Bierman A.
        • Schernhammer E.
        • Rea M.S.
        Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption.
        Light Res Technol. 2010; 42: 271-284
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Eggleston G.
        • Rea M.S.
        Effects of light exposure on behavior of Alzheimer's patients - a pilot study.
        in: Light and human health: EPRI/LRO 5th international lighting research symposium. 2002: 151-156
        • Figueiro M.G.
        Lessons from the Daysimeter: can circadian disruption in individuals with Alzheimer's disease be measured?.
        Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2012; 2: 553-556
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Plitnick B.
        • Lok A.
        • et al.
        Tailored lighting intervention improves measures of sleep, depression and agitation in persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementia living in long-term care facilities.
        Clin Interv Aging. 2014; 9: 1527-1537
        • Rea M.S.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        • Bierman A.
        • Bullough J.D.
        Circadian light.
        J Circadian Rhythms. 2010; 8: 2
        • Vetter C.
        • Juda M.
        • Lang D.
        • Wojtysiak A.
        • Roenneberg T.
        Blue-enriched office light competes with natural light as a zeitgeber.
        Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011; 37: 437-445
        • Crowley S.J.
        • Molina T.A.
        • Burgess H.J.
        A week in the life of full-time office workers: work day and weekend light exposure in summer and winter.
        Appl Ergon. 2015; 46: 193-200
        • Wood B.
        • Rea M.S.
        • Plitnick B.
        • Figueiro M.G.
        Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression.
        Appl Ergon. 2013; 44: 237-240
        • Viola A.U.
        • James L.M.
        • Schlangen L.J.
        • Dijk D.J.
        Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality.
        Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008; 34: 297-306
        • Broussard J.L.
        • Van Cauter E.
        Disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms: novel risk factors for obesity.
        Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2016; 23: 353-359
        • Kreier F.
        • Kalsbeek A.
        • Sauerwein H.P.
        • Fliers E.
        • Romijn J.A.
        • Buijs R.M.
        “diabetes of the elderly” and type 2 diabetes in younger patients: possible role of the biological clock.
        Exp Gerontol. 2007; 42: 22-27
        • Maemura K.
        • Takeda N.
        • Nagai R.
        Circadian rhythms in the CNS and peripheral clock disorders: role of the biological clock in cardiovascular diseases.
        J Pharmacol Sci. 2007; 103: 134-138
        • Young M.E.
        • Bray M.S.
        Potential role for peripheral circadian clock dyssynchrony in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction.
        Sleep Med. 2007; 8: 656-667
        • Hansen J.
        Risk of breast cancer after night-and shift work: current evidence and ongoing studies in Denmark.
        Cancer Causes Control. 2006; 17: 531-537
        • Schernhammer E.S.
        • Laden F.
        • Speizer F.E.
        • et al.
        Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the Nurses' health study.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 1563-1568