Sleeping with technology: cognitive, affective, and technology usage predictors of sleep problems among college students

Published:January 04, 2016DOI:



      Sleep problems related to technology affect college students through several potential mechanisms including displacement of sleep due to technology use, executive functioning abilities, and the impact of emotional states related to stress and anxiety about technology availability.


      In the present study, cognitive and affective factors that influence technology usage were examined for their impact upon sleep problems.

      Participants and measurements

      More than 700 US college students completed an online questionnaire addressing technology usage, anxiety/dependence, executive functioning, nighttime phone usage, bedtime phone location, and sleep problems.


      A path model controlling for background variables was tested using the data. The results showed that executive dysfunction directly predicted sleep problems as well as affected sleep problems through nighttime awakenings. In addition, anxiety/dependence increased daily smartphone usage and also increased nighttime awakenings, which, in turn, affected sleep problems.


      Thus, both the affective and cognitive factors that influence technology usage affected sleep problems.


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