Advertisement

Examining racial/ethnic disparities in the association between adolescent sleep and alcohol or marijuana use

      Abstract

      Objectives

      The current study examines the association between self-reported measures of trouble sleeping, total sleep time (TST), and bedtimes and odds of past month alcohol and marijuana (AM) use in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents.

      Design

      This is a Web-based cross-sectional survey.

      Setting

      The setting is in Los Angeles County, CA.

      Participants

      The sample is composed of 2539 youth representing 4 distinct racial/ethnic categories (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, Asian, and “other”; mean age, 15.54; 54.23% female) from Los Angeles.

      Measurements

      The survey assessed TST and bedtimes (weekdays and weekends), trouble sleeping, and past month AM use as well as relevant covariates (sociodemographics and mental health symptoms).

      Results

      Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of sleep problems and AM use, the associations between sleep problems and AM use were consistent across racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, shorter TST, later bedtimes, and trouble sleeping were each associated with significantly higher odds of past month alcohol use, whereas later bedtimes and shorter TST were also associated with increased odds of past month marijuana use, even after adjusting for other known risk factors.

      Conclusions

      Sleep problems are associated with increased AM use in teens, even after controlling for sociodemographics and mental health symptoms. Further longitudinal research on sleep and AM use is critical to identify novel prevention and intervention efforts to reduce disparities in the relationship between sleep and AM use.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • National Sleep Foundation
        Adolescent sleep needs and patterns.
        2000
        • D'Amico E.J.
        • McCarthy D.M.
        Escalation and initiation of younger adolescents' substance use: the impact of perceived peer use.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39: 481-487
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • Schulenberg J.E.
        Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2012.
        Volume I: secondary school students. Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan2013
        • Tucker J.S.
        • Ellickson P.L.
        • Collins R.L.
        • Klein D.J.
        Are drug experimenters better adjusted than abstainers and users? A longitudinal study of adolescent marijuana use.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39: 488-494
        • Bava S.
        • Frank L.R.
        • McQueeny T.
        • Schweinsburg B.C.
        • Schweinsburg A.D.
        • Tapert S.F.
        Altered white matter microstructure in adolescent substance users.
        Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2009; 173: 228-237
        • Hingson R.W.
        • Heeren T.
        • Winter M.R.
        Age of alcohol-dependence onset: associations with severity of dependence and treatment seeking.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: e755-e763
        • Alfano C.A.
        • Zakem A.H.
        • Costa N.M.
        • Taylor L.K.
        • Weems C.F.
        Sleep problems and their relation to cognitive factors, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents.
        Depress Anxiety. 2009; 26: 503-512
        • Curcio G.
        • Ferrara M.
        • De Gennaro L.
        Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2006; 10: 323-337
        • Magee L.
        • Hale L.
        Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain: a systematic review.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2012; 16: 231-241
        • Mezick E.J.
        • Hall M.
        • Matthews K.A.
        Sleep duration and ambulatory blood pressure in black and white adolescents.
        Hypertension. 2012; 59: 747-752
        • Johnson E.O.
        • Breslau N.
        Sleep problems and substance use in adolescence.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001; 64: 1-7
        • Gromov I.
        • Gromov D.
        Sleep and substance use and abuse in adolescents.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009; 18: 929-946
        • Fakier N.
        • Wild L.G.
        Associations among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence.
        J Adolesc. 2011; 34: 717-726
        • Wong M.M.
        • Brower K.J.
        • Fitzgerald H.E.
        • Zucker R.A.
        Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004; 28: 578-587
        • Wong M.M.
        • Brower K.J.
        • Nigg J.T.
        • Zucker R.A.
        Childhood sleep problems, response inhibition, and alcohol and drug outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010; 34: 1033-1044
        • Roane B.M.
        • Taylor D.J.
        Adolescent insomnia as a risk factor for early adult depression and substance abuse.
        Sleep. 2008; 31: 1351-1356
        • Wong M.M.
        • Robertson G.C.
        • Dyson R.B.
        Prospective relationship between poor sleep and substance-related problems in a national sample of adolescents.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015; 39: 355-362
        • Tucker J.S.
        • Ellickson P.L.
        • Klein D.J.
        Predictors of the transition to regular smoking during adolescence and young adulthood.
        J Adolesc Health. 2003; 32: 314-324
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • Schulenberg J.E.
        Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2008.
        Volume I: secondary school students. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD2009
        • Bernat D.H.
        • Erickson D.J.
        • Widome R.
        • Perry C.L.
        • Forster J.L.
        Adolescent smoking trajectories: results from a population-based cohort study.
        J Adolesc Health. 2008; 43: 334-340
        • Brown T.L.
        • Flory K.
        • Lynam D.R.
        • Leukefeld C.
        • Clayton R.R.
        Comparing the developmental trajectories of marijuana use of African American and Caucasian adolescents: patterns, antecedents, and consequences.
        Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004; 12: 47-56
        • Ellickson P.L.
        • Martino S.C.
        • Collins R.L.
        Marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood: multiple developmental trajectories and their associated outcomes.
        Health Psychol. 2004; 23: 299-307
        • NIDA
        Drug use among racial/ethnic minorities.
        Rockville, MD, NIDA1998
        • Caetano R.
        • Clark C.L.
        Trends in alcohol-related problems among whites, blacks, and Hispanics: 1984-1995.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998; 22: 534-538
        • Matthews K.
        • Hall M.
        • Dahl R.
        Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 33: e1189-e1196
        • Roberts R.E.
        • Roberts C.R.
        • Chen I.G.
        Ethnocultural differences in sleep complaints among adolescents.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000; 188: 222-229
        • Troxel W.M.
        • Lee L.
        • Hall M.
        • Matthews K.A.
        Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents.
        Sleep Med. 2014; 15: 255-261
        • Swendsen J.D.
        • Merikangas K.R.
        The comorbidity of depression and substance use disorders.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2000; 20: 173-189
        • D'Amico E.J.
        • Tucker J.S.
        • Miles J.N.V.
        • Zhou A.J.
        • Shih R.A.
        • Green H.D.J.
        Preventing alcohol use with a voluntary after school program for middle school students: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of CHOICE.
        Prev Sci. 2012; 13: 415-425
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1997.
        National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD1998
        • Berwick D.M.
        • Murphy J.M.
        • Goldman P.A.
        • Ware Jr., J.E.
        • Barsky A.J.
        • Weinstein M.C.
        Performance of a five-item mental health screening test.
        Med Care. 1991; 29: 169-176
        • Kroenke K.
        • Spitzer R.L.
        • Williams J.B.
        The PHQ-15: validity of a new measure for evaluating the severity of somatic symptoms.
        Psychosom Med. 2002; 64: 258-266
        • Austin G.
        • Skager R.
        Eleventh Biennial California Student Survey of Drug, Alcohol, & Tobacco Use, 2005-06: appendix of tables.
        California Attorney General's Office, Crime and Violence Prevention Center, Sacramento, CA2008
        • Ellickson P.L.
        • McCaffrey D.F.
        • Ghosh-Dastidar B.
        • Longshore D.L.
        New inroads in preventing adolescent drug use: results from a large-scale trial of project ALERT in middle schools.
        Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 1830-1836
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        Issues of validity and population coverage in student surveys of drug use.
        in: Rouse B.A. Casual N.J. Richards L.G. Self-report methods of estimating drug use: meeting current challenges to validity. NIDA research Monograph. 57. NIDA, Rockville, MD1985
        • Adam E.K.
        • Snell E.K.
        • Pendry P.
        Sleep timing and quantity in ecological and family context: a nationally representative time-diary study.
        J Fam Psychol. 2007; 21: 4-19
        • Shih R.A.
        • Miles J.N.V.
        • Tucker J.S.
        • Zhou A.J.
        • D'Amico E.J.
        Racial/ethnic differences in adolescent substance use: mediation by individual, family, and school factors.
        J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2010; 71: 640-651
        • Schulenberg J.
        • Wadsworth K.N.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • Johnston L.D.
        Adolescent risk factors for binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood: variable- and pattern-centered approaches to change.
        Dev Psychol. 1996; 32: 659-674
        • Hasler B.P.
        • Sitnick S.L.
        • Shaw D.S.
        • Forbes E.E.
        An altered neural response to reward may contribute to alcohol problems among late adolescents with an evening chronotype.
        Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2013; 214: 357-364
        • Dahl R.E.
        The regulation of sleep and arousal: development and psychopathology.
        Dev Psychopathol. 1996; 8: 3-27

      Linked Article